DirectedGraph Traversal Algorithms Reference
Digraph Traversals
Digraph Transpose
Digraph Breadth-First
Digraph Depth-First
Digraph Traversals
DirectedGraph Traversal Algorithms Reference
Initializing and controlling traversal algorithm state for advanced developers.

Traversal Algorithms Overview

Currently, ARCcore.graph bundles two traversal algorithms: Breadth-First Visit/Search and Depth-First Visit/Search.

Traversal Request Object

Traversal algorithms rely on a common request object structure and shared front-end request parser.

A traversal algorithm request is a JavaScript object that looks like this:

var traversalRequest = {
    digraph: (required) DirectedGraph container reference
    visitor: (required) visitor interface object reference
    options: (optional) advanced config options object

Pass a traversal request object to either breadthFirstTraverse or depthFirstTraverse and to initiate a traversal and obtain a response object.

Traversal Options

Most of the time you'll not need to worry about request.options. A few commonly hit exceptions are documented in the subsections below.

When you do need to specify options, the following table explains:

startVectorstring or array of stringsone or more vertex ID string(s). defaults to root vertex set of container
allowEmptyStartVectorBooleanflag indicating if traversal with empty start vector is an error or not. default is false
signalStartBooleanflag indicating if the algorithm should call the startVertex visitor interface callback. default is true.
traverseContextobjecttraversal context (advanced - see subsection below)
Rootless directed graphs

A rootless directed graph has no vertices with in-degree zero (0). That is every vertex in the graph has at least one edge directed at it.

If you pass a rootless directed graph to a traversal algorithm, the call will return an error indicating that the traversal cannot start because the algorithm doesn't know at which vertex to start the traversal.

Depending on what you're doing and what you're trying to learn by invoking the traversal, consider one of the following strategies:

  • Specify one or more start vertices explicitly via request.options.startVector array.
  • Override the empty start vector error via request.options.allowEmptyStartVector Boolean flag.

Note that this advice also applies if your digraph is empty because a graph with no vertices has no root vertices.

Visit vs. Search & The Starting Vertex Set

In Introduction to Algorithms a graph visit starts at a vertex and executes some stateful walk along edges. A search is an ordered sequence of visits.

The start or starting vertices for visit and search respectively are called the start vertex set.

If the start vertex set contains a single vertex ID string, then the traversal algorithm executes an algorithm-specific graph visit.

If the start vertex set contains more than one vertex ID string, then the traversal algorithm executes an algorithm-specific graph search.

By default, all ARCcore.graph traversal algorithms call DirectedGraph.getRootVertices to obtain the start vertex set.

This behavior can be overridden via request.options.startVector array.

Overriding The Default Traversal Context (State)

Traversal algorithms internally allocate a color map and some other private state used during the execution of the traversal. On success, the "traversal context object" is returned via response.result.

In advanced scenarios, and sometimes in cases where you need fine-grained control over the color map values, use the export function ARCcore.graph.directed.createTraversalContext to default construct a traversal context, do what you need to it, and then attach it by reference to the traversal options object: request.options.traversalContext.

$ node
> var arccore = require('arccore');
> var digraphToTraverse = arccore.graph.directed.create().result; // would typically be populated in a real-world example
> var traversalContext = arccore.graph.directed.createTraversalContext({ digraph: digraphToTraverse });
> traversalContext
{ error: null,
  result: { searchStatus: 'pending', colorMap: {}, undiscoveredMap: {} } }

Traversal response object

Traversal algorithms return an error/result response object.

var response = {
    error: null or string explaining what went wrong
    result: for traversal algorithms always a traversal context object or null if error

A traversal context object looks like this:

var traversalContext = {
    searchStatus: string status
    colorMap: dictionary
    undiscoveredMap: dictionary

It is often useful to determine if a traversal completed or was terminated by a false visitor callback response.

Use the response.searchStatus string to discriminate the exit status of the traversal as follows:

var response = ARCcore.graph.directed.exampleTraverse(request);
if (!response.error) {
    var traversalContext = response.result;
    switch (traversalContext.searchStatus) {
    case 'completed':
        // traversal completed normally
    case 'terminated':
        // traversal was terminated by a false visitor callback response
        // unexpected
Encapsule Project, Seattle WA
Copyright © 2023 Chris Russell
Thu Jun 01 2023 02:45:41 GMT-0400 (Eastern Daylight Time)

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